Narrative text Jumat, Feb 26 2010 

Definition

A narrative text is an account of events.

ex: picture

Basic Competency:

To understand meaning nuance within transactional text that contains narrative text

Indicators:

  • Identifying the definition of narrative text
  • identifying the generic structures of narrative text
    • Using past tense

NARRATIVE  TEXT

The generic structures of the text:

Orientation : It sets the scene and introduces the participants (it answers the questions; Who, What, When and Where)

Complication: A crisis or a problem arises. It usually involves the main characters.

Resolution: A solution to the problem (for better or worse). Main characters find a way to solve the problem.

NARRATIVE  TEXT

Other generic structures of the text:

Evaluation: (optional) a step back to evaluate the plight (the narrator’s viewpoint)

Coda: (optional)Changes of the characters or lesson/value of the story

Re-orientation: (optional)

  • Kinds of narrative text:
  • A myth
  • A legend
  • Fable
  • A folklore

Purpose (social function) :

To entertain listeners or readers with a true experience or an imaginary one. The characteristic of the text is marked by conflict and resolution.

Let’s follow the Structure of the text bellow :

Title

Orientation

Evaluation

Complication

Revolution

Reorientation

*Orientation

It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.

*Complication

Where the problem in the story developed

*Resolution

Where the problem in the story is solved.

Recount text Jumat, Feb 26 2010 

Standard Competency :

*        To comprehend and express the meaning of short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of recount text, narrative, and procedure that have contextual in habitual activities to access knowledge

Basic Competency :

*       To respond and express the meaning within simple monolog texts that uses the variety of writing accurately, fluently, and used in habitual activities to accesss knowledge in recount text

Indicators :

After having finished the lesson, the students will be expected to able to:

*        understand the concept of recount text

*        identify the main idea of the text

*        identify the series of events of recount text

The generic structures of recount text are  :

*        Orientation ( it gives the readers the background information needed to understand the text such as who was involved, where it happened, when it happened)

*        Events (a series of events, ordered in a chronological sequence)

*        Re-orientation (restates the writer’s opinion or personal comment of the writer on the incident

The significant Lexicogrammatical features :

◦         Use of simple past tense

◦         Use of temporal conjunctions (when, after, before, next, later, then)

◦         Use of personal pronoun (I, we)

Recounts
Purpose
: The purpose of a recount is to retell events.
The prefix re means again. So to recount is to state again.

Structure: There is often an opening or setting a of a scene. E.g. I went to the park.
The events in a recount are often in the order that they happen (Chronological order):

I went to the park and I saw a pond. The pond had ducks sitting at the side of it.

A recount will often have a closing statement. E.g. I left the park and went home.

Language features: Recounts are written in the past tense.
They can be written in the first or the third person
1st person It is happening to the person writing the recount i.e. I went to the park.
3rd person. An observer is telling it. Tom went to the park, there he saw a pond.
The connectives in a recount are often: Next, then, after that.
Recounts focus on what an individual or a group of people were doing.
The following are examples of recounts.

Recounts

Today we are going to remind you of the non-fiction types of text.
This session is only an introduction to recounts and how to tell a recount from other types of text
There are six main types of non-fiction text:

Recount, Instructions, Persuasion,
Discussion, Explanation and Non-chronological reports.

Each of these types as its own purpose, structure and language features.
By knowing these text types you will be able to read and learn to write in these styles.
Today we will look at the purpose, structure and language features of Recounts

Here are three non-fiction texts. Can you tell which of these is a recount?

Text 1.
Making an omelette.
2 eggs
25g of oil
250 milk
Frying pan
Method
Take the pan and put in the oil. Heat the oil until it is hot.
Break the eggs into a bowl and add the milk.
Beat the eggs and milk together and when mixed thoroughly, add to the frying pan.
Fry until the omlette in brown on one side and then turn it over in the pan.
When cooked remove from the pan and serve with a garnish of parsley.

Text 2
In the summer the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter.
This is not because as some people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the Earth.
The Earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in the summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It seems strange that as the earth gets closer to the Sun during its orbit then in the amount of daylight that we get decreases. But that is the case. It is the tilt of the Earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon.

Text 3
My mother got me ready for school then I had to wait for her to brush my hair and place every strand in just the perfect position. I had to show her my shoes that I had cleaned the night before and my school bag had to be neatly put on my shoulder before I could get near the door. Only after my mother was totally satisfied would I be allowed to rush out of the front door.
I would leave home at 8 am on the dot and make my way down the lane. After a walk of about 700 metres I would be able to see the tall steeple of the school.
The playground would be full in the summer and the noise would make me want to rush into the yard and get into a good game of football before the bell went.

*        Recount text  is a text that is used to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.

Announcement Jumat, Feb 26 2010 

Standard Competency :

¨     To comprehend and express the meanings of spoken and written short functional text about announcement in the context of daily life to access knowledge.

Basic Competency :

¨     To respond and express the meanings within the formal / informal spoken and written short functional text in the form of  announcement, advertisement, invitation  accurately and fluently in the daily life context to access knowledge.

Indicators :

¨     After finishing  the lesson, the students are expected to be able to:

¨     identify the topic or the purpose of a spoken announcement

¨     give spoken announcement

¨     read aloud the written passage of an announcement in the meaningful way and with good pronunciation and intonation

¨     identify the topic of a written announcement

¨     use the appropriate grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and other writing rules accurately

–noun

1.public or formal notice announcing something: The announcement appeared in the newspapers.
2.the act of announcing.
3.a short message or commercial, esp. a commercial spoken on radio or television.
4.a card or piece of formal stationery containing a formal declaration of an event, as a wedding.
an·nounce·ment

    1. The act of making known publicly.
    2. Something announced.
    3. A broadcast message, especially a program note or commercial.
  1. An engraved or printed formal statement or notice, as of a wedding or a relocation.

In writing an announcement, keep the following points

¨     the title/type of event,

¨     Date/time, place and

¨     contact person


Giving Instruction Kamis, Feb 25 2010 

Giving Instruction is an expression that is used in order that other person does what we instruct or request.

A Giving Instructions essay is an essay in which you explain how to do something.  One is often required to explain how to do something in writing.  Essays explaining how to conduct an experiment, how to set up a campsite, how to get a passport, how to train for a marathon, are all Giving Instructions essays.

Asking for Instructions

How do you (do this)?

How do I . . . ?

What is the best way to . . . ?

How do I go about it?

What do you suggest?

How do you suggest I proceed?

What is the first step?

Giving Instructions

Sequencing

First, (you) . . .

Then, (you) . . .

Next, (you) . . .

Lastly, (you) . . .

Starting out

Before you begin, (you should . . .)

The first thing you do is . . . .

I would start by . . .

The best place to begin is . . .

To begin with,

Continuing

After that,

The next step is to . . .

The next thing you do is . . .

Once you’ve done that, then . . .

When you finish that, then . . .

Finishing

The last step is . . .

The last thing you do is . . .

In the end,

When you’ve finished,

When you’ve completed all the steps,

ex: a coach give instruction at his boxer.

ex.2: can also give instruction to make something. like cooking .

Standard Competency :

*       To comprehend and express the meaning nuance within the transactional and interpersonal conversations which are related to the instruction expressions in the context of daily life.

Basic Competency :

*       To respond and express the meaning nuance within the formal / informal transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal (get sociable) by using the simple kind of spoken and written languages accurately and fluently in the daily life context involving the acts of expressing happiness, gaining attention, expressing sympathy and giving instructions

Indicators :

*       After having finished the lesson, the students are expected to be able to:

*        Identify the meaning nuance of giving instruction

*        Give instruction orally

*        Respond or carry out transactional and interpersonal conversations involving the acts of giving instruction

*        The example expressions of giving instruction :

¡     Open your book!

¡     Close the door, please!

¡     Be quiet, please!

¡     Move the chair!

¡     Open the window!

¡     Pass me the sugar, please!

¡     Stand up, please!

Note : The tense used in giving instruction is                     “simple present”

Sympathy Expressions Rabu, Feb 24 2010 

*    Standard Competency :

To comprehend and express the meaning nuance within the transactional and interpersonal conversations which are related to the expressions of sympathy in the context of daily life

*       Basic Competency :

To respond and express the meaning nuance within the formal / informal transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal (get sociable) conversations by using the simple kind of spoken and written languages accurately and fluently in the daily life context involving the acts of expressing happiness, gaining attention, expressing sympathy and giving instruction

Indicators :

*       After having studied the material given, the students are expected to be able to:

*        mention the definition of sympathy expression

*        identify the meaning nuance of expressing sympathy

respond or carry out conversations using sympathy expressions

*        The definition of sympathy expression:

Sympathy expression is an expression or feeling of pity and sorrow when we know and see someone or people are unlucky or have trouble and in bad condition. By expressing sympathy we want to show our concern or carefulness on other people’s condition.

ex:

Just saying “I’m sorry to hear your mom died.”

Sending a Sympathy card.

Sending flowers to a funeral home.

Giving a bereaved person a hug.

These are all expressions of sympathy.

—        How can we give sympathy expression to someone?

We express it directly to him/her orally or we can use a letter or card by post also by short message service (SMS), e-mail, television, radio, and newspaper if he/she who got the trouble is far from us.

—        Several expressions of sympathy :

—        I’d like to express my deepest condolences

—        I’m sorry to hear that

—        I’m awfully sorry about…

—        Oh, how awful!

—        Oh, dear!

—        You must be very upset

—        Oh, what a shame

—        How pity you are!

—        How terrible / awful for you

ex: sympathy expressions used for moment someone die.

ex: also able to be used in laying open sorrow, for someone die, pain, experiencing of accident. Can in form card utterance, or directly.

Gaining Attention Jumat, Feb 5 2010 

Standard Competency :

—        To comprehend and express the meaning within the transactional and interpersonal conversations about gaining attention in the context of daily life.

Basic Competency :

—        To respond and express the meaning nuance within the formal / informal transactional and interpersonal conversations accurately and fluently by using the simple kind of spoken language in the context of daily life involving the acts of expressing happiness, gaining attention, expressing sympathy and giving instruction

Indicators :

—        After finishing the lesson, the student are expected  to be able:

—        identify  and respond the meaning nuance of gaining attention

—        carry out transactional conversations involving the acts of gaining attention.

—        carry out conversations for interpersonal purpose and social interaction.

Gaining attention is a way or expression that is spoken so that other people will pay their attention  to what we want to.

The example expressions of gaining attention :

—        Attention, please

—        May I have your

attention, please?

—        Excuse me, look here!

—        Listening to me, please

—        Waiter?

—        I’m sorry, but…

—        Wow really?

Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources

Examples include listening carefully to what someone is saying while ignoring other conversations in a room (the cocktail party effect) or listening to a cell phone conversation while driving a car.

Everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others, and is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state which in French is called distraction, and Zerstreutheit in German.

example: Gaining Attention with way of  demonstration.

Happiness Expressions Jumat, Feb 5 2010 

Standard Competency :

To comprehend and express the meaning nuance within the transactional and interpersonal conversations which are related to the happiness expressions in the context of daily life.

Basic Competency :

To respond and express the meaning nuance within the formal / informal transactional (to get things done) and interpersonal (get sociable) conversations by using the simple kind of spoken and written languages accurately and fluently in the daily life context involving the acts of expressing happiness, gaining attention, expressing sympathy and giving instruction.

Indicators :

After finishing  the lesson, the students are expected to be able to:

identify the meaning nuance of expressing happiness

respond or carry out transactional and interpersonal conversations about expressing happiness

Happiness Expression is an expression that is used to show that someone or people are glad have excited feelings

What would you say to express your happiness?

I’m happy……

I’m (very)pleased / (really) delighted (about)….

I can’t say how pleased / delighted I am about it

I am so glad to hear that

Great!

Terrific!

Fantastic!

Laughter is an audible expression or the appearance of happiness, or an inward feeling of joy (laughing on the inside). It may ensue (as a physiological reaction) from [[jokes it is in most cases a very pleasant sensation.

Laughter is found among various animals, as well as in humans. Among the human species, it is a part

of human behaviour regulated by the brain, helping humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and providing an emotional context to conversations. Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group — it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seemingly

contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive feedback. This may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows. (wikipedia)

Scientifically speaking, laughter is caused by the epiglottis constricting the larynx. The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the human body is called gelotology.

Appointment Jumat, Feb 5 2010 

2. Appointment

Standard Competency :

To express meanings within the transactional and interpersonal conversations about appointment in the context of daily life.

Basic Competency :

To respond and express the meanings within the formal/informal transactional and interpersonal conversations accurately and fluently that contains the introduction expressions (greetings), invitation, and appointment.

Indicators :

After having studied the lesson, the students are expected to be able to:

identify the expression meaning of making, accepting, canceling and changing an appointment

carry out transactional and interpersonal conversations about appointment

Definition of Appointment:

  • Appointment tells about agreement for meeting. It is good to make an appointment before you meet someone or people.

Making an appointment

I’d like to make an appointment with. . . . (person)

I want to make an appointment to see….. (person)

I’d like to make an appointment to see . . .( person)

Can I come and see you?

I’ll be there

What about….(Thursday)?

Accepting an Appointment

All right, see you there

No problem, I’m free on….(Thursday)

Be there on time

I’ll wait for you there

It’s a deal

Canceling an appointment

I’m sorry, I’m very busy

I’m terrible sorry I have to put off my appointment

I’m afraid I have to postpone my appointment with….( person) tomorrow morning

Changing an appointment

What about …..(day and time)?

Is that ok, if we meet at….. (time)?

Do you have another time this afternoon?

Could we change the day (time) of the meeting?

Would you mind if we change the day (time)of the meeting?

Well, I must be off now. I’ll talk to you later!

Appointment may refer to a number of things, including the following:

  • An appointment is a time reserved for something such as a doctor visit, much like a reservation.
  • An appointment, in government refers to the assignment of a person by an official to perform a duty, such as a presidential appointment of a judge to a court. This may also happen for an office which is normally elected, but has an unexpected vacancy. A person appointed but not yet in office is a designee.
  • The power of appointment, in law, is the ability of a testator to select another person to dispose of the testator’s property.
  • An appointment of clergy, in Christianity, is made by a bishop to a particular ministry setting, particularly in denominations which practice episcopal forms of church government and polity (such as Anglicanism and United Methodism.) Typically, a pastor is appointed to a particular church or parish.
  • Appointment is used to describe a system of selecting candidates in which the choice is made by an individual or panel rather than by a poll of the populace in general (election), or through random selection (allotment/sortition) as used to select juries.

A power of appointment is a term most frequently used in the law of wills to describe the ability of the testator (the person writing the will) to select a person who will be given the authority to dispose of certain property under the will. Although any person can exercise this power at any time during their life, its use is rare outside of a will. The power is divided into two broad categories: general powers of appointment and Special powers of appointment. The holder of a power of appointment differs from the trustee of a trust in that the former has no obligation to manage the property for the generation of income, but need only distribute it.

INVITATION Minggu, Nov 29 2009 

Invitation tells about how to invite or ask someone to come a long or join a particular program or achtivity.

How to invite someone

  • I would like you to. . . .
  • We would like you to. . . .
  • We would be pleased if you could
  • Would you please aftend my party tonight?
  • Would you please aftend my birthday tonight?
  • Would you like to. . .?
  • Shall we. . .?
  • How about. . .?
  • If you don’t mind, please come to my house tomorrow?
  • Let’s have to dinner together with me tonight?
  • Would you mind coming to my birthday party?

Accepting an Invitation

  • Great! Leat’s do it.
  • Thank you. I’d like to
  • That’s a good idea
  • That would be very nice
  • I’d be glad to
  • That sounds like fun
  • That would be wonderful

Declining an Invitation

  • I’m really sorry about that
  • Sorry. I can’t. I have to do something
  • I’d love to. But I can’t

Invitation:

  1. A document written or printed, or spoken words, conveying the message by which one is invited.
  2. The act of inviting; solicitation; the requesting of a person’s company; as, an invitation to a party, to a dinner, or to visit a friend.
  3. Allurement; enticement.
  4. A request (spoken or written) to participate or be present or take part in something.

Invitation or open invitation an action or event that makes something unpleasant more to happen invitation to: He described the low wages paid to police officers as almost an invitation to corruption.

An (open) invitation to do something: The bank will take the minister’s comments as an open invitation to charge their costumers higher rates.

Ex:       










news Rabu, Nov 25 2009 

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