Firstly, go through the text, and find all of

character, physical traits, like his/her hair

colour, eye colour, tall, weight, characteristic, etc.

Second, figure out if the character is a minor or major character.

We could also analyze

character by realizing the

different traits the person as

personality wise, like if the

character is soft spoken,

wise,mean to certain




Analyze setting.

We need to see the

time of day, prior place,

future place, etc.

We also have a good start with





and how.

The topics in this section are plot, character, setting, the narrator, figurative language, the way reality is represented, the world-view.

1. Plot.

As a narrative a work of fiction has a certain arrangement of events which are taken to have a relation to one another. This arrangement of events to some end — for instance to create significance, raise the level of generality, extend or complicate the meaning — is known as ‘plot’.

2. Character.

Characters in a work of fiction are generally designed to open up or explore certain aspects of human experience. Characters often depict particular traits of human nature; they may represent only one or two traits — a greedy old man who has forgotten how to care about others, for instance, or they may represent very complex conflicts, values and emotions.

3. Setting

Narrative requires a setting; this as in poetry may vary from the concrete to the general. Often setting will have particular culturally coded significance — a sea-shore has a significance for us different from that of a dirty street corner, for instance, and different situations and significances can be constructed through its use. Settings, like characters, can be used in contrasting and comparative ways to add significance, can be repeated, repeated with variations, and so forth.

4. The Narrator

A narration requires a narrator, someone (or more than one) who tells the story. This person or persons will see things from a certain perspective, or point of view, in terms of their relation to the events and in terms of their attitude(s) towards the events and characters. A narrator may be external, outside the story, telling it with an ostensibly objective and omniscient voice; or a narrator may be a character (or characters) within the story, telling the story in the first person (either central characters or observer characters, bit players looking in on the scene).

5. Figurative language

As in poetry, there will be figurative language; as in drama, this language tends to be used to characterize the sensibility and understanding of characters as well as to establish thematic and tonal continuities and significance.

6. Representation of reality

Fiction generally claims to represent ‘reality’ (this is known as representation or mimesis) in some way; however, because any narrative is presented through the symbols and codes of human meaning and communication systems, fiction cannot represent reality directly, and different narratives and forms of narrative represent different aspects of reality, and represent reality in different ways.

7. World-view.

As narrative represents experience in some way and as it uses cultural codes and language to do so, it inevitably must be read, as poetry, for its structure of values, for its understanding of the world, or world-view, and for its ideological assumptions, what is assumed to be natural and proper. Every narrative communication makes claims, often implicitly, about the nature of the world as the narrator and his or her cultural traditions understand it to be. The kind of writing we call “literature” tends to use cultural codes and to use the structuring devices of narrative with a high degree of intentionality in order to offer a complex understanding of the world.

Firstly, go through the text, and find all of
character, physical traits, like his/her hair
colour, eye colour, tall, weight, characteristic, etc.

Slide 4