Standard Competency :

*     To comprehend and express the meanings of short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of past tense in the daily life context to access knowledge

Basic Competency :

*     To respond and express the meaning nuance and the rhetorical steps within the short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of  past tense (simple past tense, past continuous tense, past perfect tense)accurately and fluently in the daily life context to access knowledge

Indicators :

After having finished the lesson, the student are expected to be able to:

*     understand the pattern of past tense

*     identify past tense in a certain text

*     use past tense in making sentences and telling an event or action.

*     Simple past is formed for regular verb by adding –ed to the root of a word. Example: He walked to the store. A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infinitive form. Example: He did not walk to the store. Question sentences are started with did as in Did he walk to the store?

For other uses, see past tense (disambiguation).

The past tense (abbreviated pst) is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state of being in the past of the current moment (in an absolute tense system), or prior to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future (in a relative tense system).

In English, there are two distinct types of past tense:

  1. Preterite (or simple past)
  2. Present perfect (see perfect aspect)

Each of these may also be found in the progressive (cuntinuous) aspect.

Simple past is used for describing acts that have already been concluded and whose exact time of occurrence is known. Furthermore, simple past is used for retelling successive events. That is why it is commonly used in storytelling

  • Simple Past Tense is a kind of tense which is used to describe an event or action that happened already in a certain time in  the past

The pattern   :

–         (+) Subject + verb II + complement

–         (-)  Subject + did not + verb II +       complement

–         (?)  Did + subject + verb I

The examples :

–         (+)  I went to Tangkiling yesterday

–         (-)  I did not go anywhere last night

–         (?) Did you go last week?

Adverbs used : yesterday, last night, last week, two days ago, a few  minutes ago, last weekend, last month, last year, in 1984, etc.

  • Past Continuous Tense is a kind of tense that is used to describe an event or an action which was happening in a certain time in the past

–         The pattern :  (

–         +) Subject + was/were +verb-ing+ complement

–         (-)  Subject + was not/were not+verb-ing+ complement

–         (?)  was/were+ subject + verb-ing+complement

The examples :

(+) He was writing a letter at eight  o’clock last night

(-) He was not writing a letter at seven o’clock last night

(?)  Were you writing a letter at eight last night?

Adverbs used : at the time like this yesterday, at seven o’clock  last   night, etc.

Past Perfect Tense is a kind of tense that is used to describe an action or an event that started in a certain time in the past and completed or finished  till  certain time in the past too; or past perfect tense is used to express an action or an event that had happened before the other event or action happened

The pattern :

–         (+) Subject + had+verb III+cmplement

–         (-) Subject + had not+ver III+complement

–         (?) Had + subject +verb III+complement

examples

–         (+) We had eaten before they came

–         (-) They had not eaten before we came

–         (?) Had they eaten before we came?

Adverbs used :

from 1998 to 1999, once, twice, etc.

Simple past is formed for regular verbs by adding -d or–ed to the root of a word. Examples: He walked to the store, or They danced all night.. A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infinitive form. Example: He did not walk to the store. Question sentences are started with did as in Did he walk to the store?

Simple past is used for describing acts that have already been concluded and whose exact time of occurrence is known. Furthermore, simple past is used for retelling successive events. That is why it is commonly used in storytelling.

Past progressive is formed by using the adequate form of to be and the verb’s present participle: He was going to church. By inserting not before the main verb a negation is achieved. Example: He was not going to church. A question is formed by prefixing the adequate form of to be as in Was he going?.

Past progressive is used for describing events that were in the process of occurring when a new event happened. The already occurring event is presented in past progressive, the new one in simple past. Example: We were sitting in the garden when the thunderstorm started. Use is similar to other languages’ imperfect tense.

Present perfect simple is formed by combining have/has with the main verb’s past participle form: I have arrived. A negation is produced by inserting not after have/has: I have not arrived. Questions in present perfect are formulated by starting a sentence with have/has: Has she arrived?

Present perfect simple is used for describing a past action’s effect on the present: He has arrived. Now he is here. This holds true for events that have just been concluded as well as for events that have not yet occurred.

Present perfect progressive is formed by prefixing have/has before the grammatical participle been and the verb’s present participial form: We have been waiting. A negation is expressed by including not between have/has and been: They have not been eating. As with present perfect simple, for forming a question, have/has is put at the beginning of a sentence: Have they been eating?

Present perfect progressive is used for describing an event that has been going on until the present and may be continued in the future. It also puts emphasis on how an event has occurred. Very often since and for mark the use of present perfect progressive: I have been waiting for five hours / I have been waiting since three o’clock.

Furthermore, there is another version of past tense possible: past perfect, similar to other languages’ pluperfect tense.

Past perfect simple is formed by combining the simple past form of to have with the past participle form of the main verb: We had shouted. A negation is achieved by including not after had: You had not spoken. Questions in past perfect always start with had: Had he laughed?

Past perfect simple is used for describing secluded events that have occurred before something else followed. The event that is closer to the present is given in simple past tense: After we had visited our relatives in New York, we flew back to Toronto.

Past perfect progressive is formed by had, the grammatical particle been and the present participle of the main verb: You had been waiting. For negation, not is included before been: I had not been waiting. A question sentence is formed by starting with had: Had she been waiting?

If emphasis is put on the duration of a concluded action of the past, since and for are signal words for past perfect progressive: We had been waiting at the airport since the 9 P.M. flight. / They had been waiting for three hours now.