GRATITUDE,COMPLIMENT & CONGRATULATION Minggu, Feb 28 2010 

Gratitude, thankfulness, or appreciation is a positive emotion or attitude in acknowledgment of a benefit that one has received or will receive. The experience of gratitude has historically been a focus of several world religions, and has been considered extensively by moral philosophers such as Adam Smith. The systematic study of gratitude within psychology only began around the year 2000, possibly because psychology has traditionally been focused more on understanding distress rather than understanding positive emotions. However, with the advent of the positive psychology movement, gratitude has become a mainstream focus of psychological research.  The study of gratitude within psychology has focused on the understanding of the short term experience of the emotion of gratitude (state gratitude), individual differences in how frequently people feel gratitude (trait gratitude), and the relationship between these two aspects.

Advertisement Minggu, Feb 28 2010 

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular brand. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Standard Competency :

¡         To comprehend and express the meaning of short functional written text about advertisement in the daily life context to access knowledge.

Basic Competency :

¡         To respond and express the meaning within the short formal / informal functional written text accurately and fluently in the form of announcement, advertisement and invitation in the context of daily life to access knowledge.

¡         After having studied the material given, the student are expected to able to:

¡         understand the definition of advertisement

¡         identify the topic of advertisement text

¡         read aloud meaningfully the written passage that is discussed with a good pronunciation and intonation.

Advertising is a communication whose purpose is to inform potential customers about products and services and how to obtain and use them. Many advertisements are also designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of brand image and brand loyalty. For these purposes advertisements often contain both factual information and persuasive messages. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including: television, radio, movies, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company

In short, Advertisement is :

Information for persuading and motivating people so that it will attract them to the service and the thing that are offered or informed.

Function of advertisement

Function of advertisement :

  • Promotion
  • Communication
  • Information

In making an advertisement keep the following points

1. Language of advertisement :

  • Using the correct or suitable words.
  • Using the interesting and suggestive expression.
  • Using positive expression
  • Text of advertisement should be directed to the goals.

2. Content of advertisement :

Objective and honest

Brief and clear

Not mocking to group or other producer.

Mobile Billboard Advertising

Mobile Billboards are flat-panel campaign units in which their sole purpose is to carry advertisements along dedicated routes selected by clients prior to the start of a campaign. Mobile Billboard companies do not typically carry third-party cargo or freight. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including:

  • Target advertising
  • One day, and long term campaigns
  • Convention
  • Sporting events
  • Store openings or other similar promotional events
  • Big advertisements from smaller companies

Public service advertising

The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation, and global warming.

Commercial advertising

Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches,, magazines, newspapers, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an “identified” sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is commercial advertising.

Covert Advertising

  • Covert advertising is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise’s character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them “classics,” because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, Vaio, and cars are featured in recent James Bond films, Casino Royale.

Listening: Make Me A Copy, Please Minggu, Feb 28 2010 

Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses. It is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations via an organ such as the ear. The inability to hear is called deafness.

In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is performed primarily by the auditory system: vibrations are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in the temporal lobe). Like touch, audition requires sensitivity to the movement of molecules in the world outside the organism. Both hearing and touch are types of mechanosensation.

What is listening?


Which activity involves the most amount of listening? Students spend 20 percent of all school related hours just listening. If television watching and one-half of conversations are included, students spend approximately 50 percent of their waking hours just listening. For those hours spent in the classroom, the amount of listening time can be almost 100 percent. Look at your own activities, especially those related to college. Are most of your activities focused around listening, especially in the classroom?
If you ask a group of students to give a one word description of listening, some would say hearing; however, hearing is physical. Listening is following and understanding the sound—it is hearing with a purpose. Good listening is built on three basic skills: attitude, attention, and adjustment. These skills are known collectively as triple-A listening.

Listening is the absorption of the meanings of words and sentences by the brain. Listening leads to the understanding of facts and ideas. But listening takes attention, or sticking to the task at hand in spite of distractions. It requires concentration, which is the focusing of your thoughts upon one particular problem. A person who incorporates listening with concentration is actively listening. Active listening is a method of responding to another that encourages communication.

Listening is a very important skill, especially for tutors. Many tutors tend to talk too much during a tutorial session. This defeats the purpose of tutoring, which is to allow students to learn by discussion. Rather than turning the session into a mini-lecture, tutors must actively listen and encourage their students to become active learners. Giving a student your full attention is sometimes difficult because you start to run out of time, or you find yourself thinking about your next question; however, the time you spend actively listening to your student will result in a quality tutoring session.

Perfect tense: PPT Minggu, Feb 28 2010 

Standard Competency :

—        To comprehend and express the meanings of short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of Perfect Tense in the daily life context to access knowledge

Basic Competency :

—        To respond and express the meaning nuance and the rhetorical steps within the short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of perfect tense (present perfect, past perfect and future perfect tense)accurately and fluently in the daily life context to access knowledge

Indicators :

After having finished the lesson, the student are expected to be able to:

—        understand the pattern of perfect tense

—        identify perfect tense in a certain text

—        use perfect tense in making sentences and telling an event or action.

The present perfect tense is a perfect tense used to express action that has been completed with respect to the present. (The word perfect in its name refers to the idea of completion—of being now finished—rather than to perfection in the sense of “no flaws”.)

“I have finished” is an example of the present perfect. The present perfect is a compound tense in English (and in many other languages), meaning that it is formed by combining an auxiliary verb with the main verb. For example, in modern English, it is formed by combining a present-tense form of the auxiliary verb “to have” with the past participle of the main verb. In the above example, “have” is the auxiliary verb, whereas the past participle “finished” is the main verb. The two verbs are sometimes labeled “V1” and “V2” in grammar instruction.

—        Present Perfect Tense is used for describing a past action’s effect on the present: He has arrived. Now he is here. This holds true for events that have just been secluded as well as for events that have not yet occurred.

Present perfect is formed by combining have/has with the main verb’s past participle form:

—        I have arrived.

A negation is produced by inserting not after have/has:

—        I have not arrived.

Questions in present perfect are formulated by starting a sentence with have/has:

—         Has she arrived?

Adverbs used:

Past Perfect Tense is a kind of tense that is used to describe an action or an event that started in a certain time in the past and completed or finished  till  certain time in the past too; or past perfect tense is used to express an action or an event that had happened before the other event or action happened

The pattern :

–         (+) Subject + had+verb III+cmplement

–         (-) Subject + had not+ver III+complement

–         (?) Had + subject +verb III+complement

–         (+) We had eaten before they came

–         (-) They had not eaten before we came

–         (?) Had they eaten before we came?

Vocabs: Shapes, Parts of Body Minggu, Feb 28 2010 

not yet loaded.

Reading: analyze characters, setting etc Minggu, Feb 28 2010 

Firstly, go through the text, and find all of

character, physical traits, like his/her hair

colour, eye colour, tall, weight, characteristic, etc.

Second, figure out if the character is a minor or major character.

We could also analyze

character by realizing the

different traits the person as

personality wise, like if the

character is soft spoken,

wise,mean to certain

people,

prejudice,

etc.

Analyze setting.

We need to see the

time of day, prior place,

future place, etc.

We also have a good start with

who,

what,

when,

why,

and how.

The topics in this section are plot, character, setting, the narrator, figurative language, the way reality is represented, the world-view.

1. Plot.

As a narrative a work of fiction has a certain arrangement of events which are taken to have a relation to one another. This arrangement of events to some end — for instance to create significance, raise the level of generality, extend or complicate the meaning — is known as ‘plot’.

2. Character.

Characters in a work of fiction are generally designed to open up or explore certain aspects of human experience. Characters often depict particular traits of human nature; they may represent only one or two traits — a greedy old man who has forgotten how to care about others, for instance, or they may represent very complex conflicts, values and emotions.

3. Setting

Narrative requires a setting; this as in poetry may vary from the concrete to the general. Often setting will have particular culturally coded significance — a sea-shore has a significance for us different from that of a dirty street corner, for instance, and different situations and significances can be constructed through its use. Settings, like characters, can be used in contrasting and comparative ways to add significance, can be repeated, repeated with variations, and so forth.

4. The Narrator

A narration requires a narrator, someone (or more than one) who tells the story. This person or persons will see things from a certain perspective, or point of view, in terms of their relation to the events and in terms of their attitude(s) towards the events and characters. A narrator may be external, outside the story, telling it with an ostensibly objective and omniscient voice; or a narrator may be a character (or characters) within the story, telling the story in the first person (either central characters or observer characters, bit players looking in on the scene).

5. Figurative language

As in poetry, there will be figurative language; as in drama, this language tends to be used to characterize the sensibility and understanding of characters as well as to establish thematic and tonal continuities and significance.

6. Representation of reality

Fiction generally claims to represent ‘reality’ (this is known as representation or mimesis) in some way; however, because any narrative is presented through the symbols and codes of human meaning and communication systems, fiction cannot represent reality directly, and different narratives and forms of narrative represent different aspects of reality, and represent reality in different ways.

7. World-view.

As narrative represents experience in some way and as it uses cultural codes and language to do so, it inevitably must be read, as poetry, for its structure of values, for its understanding of the world, or world-view, and for its ideological assumptions, what is assumed to be natural and proper. Every narrative communication makes claims, often implicitly, about the nature of the world as the narrator and his or her cultural traditions understand it to be. The kind of writing we call “literature” tends to use cultural codes and to use the structuring devices of narrative with a high degree of intentionality in order to offer a complex understanding of the world.

Firstly, go through the text, and find all of
character, physical traits, like his/her hair
colour, eye colour, tall, weight, characteristic, etc.

Slide 4

Greetings Sabtu, Feb 27 2010 

}        Standard Competency :

To comprehend and express the meanings within the transactional and interpersonal conversations about greetings in the context of daily life

}        Basic Competency :

To respond and express the meanings within the formal / informal transactional and interpersonal conversations accurately and fluently that contains the introduction expressions (greetings), invitation, and appointment

Indicators :

}        After having studied the material given, the students are expected to be able to:

}        identify the expression meaning of greetings that contains self introduction, introducing other people and parting / ending conversation both orally and in written form

}        respond the expression of greetings

}        carry out transactional and interpersonal conversations involving the acts of greeting, introducing and parting

Greeting is an act of communication in which human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. While greeting customs are highly culture- and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures.

How do you greet other people?

*         Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening

*         Hello, Ewo

*         Hello, Agnes

*         How are you?

*         How’s everything with you?

*         How’s life ?

*         How are you getting along ?

*         How are you doing ?

*         Fine, thanks

*         Pretty good, thanks

*         I’m well, thanks

*         Not bad, thanks. And you?

How do you introduce yourself?

*         Let me introduce my self, my name is Oghy

*         Hello, I’m Golda

*         Hi, I’m Adi Pramono. You can call me Mono.

*         Hello, my name is Yeni Pratiwi

How do you introduce other people?

}        I would like to introduce Ria Saputri

}        I would like you to meet Grace

}        Excuse me, let me introduce you a new friend. His name is Agus Kuncoro

How do you close or end your coversation?

}        Well, I should be going now. See you!

}        I’m sorry, but I have to go now. It’s been nice talking with you. See you later

}        Well, I must be off now. I’ll talk to you later!

ex: Greetings Card. . .

Simple Present Tense Sabtu, Feb 27 2010 

Standard Competency :

  • To comprehend and express the meaning of short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of recount text, narrative, and procedure that have contextual in habitual activities to access knowledge

Basic Competency :

  • To respond and express the meaning within simple monolog texts that uses the variety of writing accurately, fluently, and used in habitual activities to accesss knowledge in recount text

Indicators:

  • Using Simple present tense in positive, negative and interrogative sentences
  • Using Simple present tense in verbal and non verbal sentences
  • Using the simple present tense In making recipes or procedures

I sing

How do we make the Simple Present Tense?

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
do base

There are three important exceptions:

  1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
  2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
  3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.

Look at these examples with the main verb like:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I, you, we, they like coffee.
He, she, it likes coffee.
I, you, we, they do not like coffee.
He, she, it does not like coffee.
? Do I, you, we, they like coffee?
Does he, she, it like coffee?

Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:

subject main verb
+ I am French.
You, we, they are French.
He, she, it is French.
I am not old.
You, we, they are not old.
He, she, it is not old.
? Am I late?
Are you, we, they late?
Is he, she, it late?

How do we use the Simple Present Tense?

We use the simple present tense when:

  • the action is general
  • the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
  • the action is not only happening now
  • the statement is always true
John drives a taxi.
past present future

It is John’s job to drive a taxi. He does it every day. Past, present and future.

Look at these examples:

  • I live in New York.
  • The Moon goes round the Earth.
  • John drives a taxi.
  • He does not drive a bus.
  • We do not work at night.
  • Do you play football?

Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb “to be” in the simple present tense – some of them are general, some of them are now:

Am I right?
Tara is not at home.
You are happy.
past present future

The situation is now.
I am not fat.
Why are you so beautiful?
Ram is tall.
past present future

The situation is general. Past, present and future.

The simple present is used:

  • to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes:
    I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city (general truth)
  • to give instructions or directions:
    You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left.
  • to express fixed arrangements, present or future:
    Your exam starts at 09.00

Examples:

  • For habits
    He drinks tea at breakfast.
    She only eats fish.
  • For repeated actions or events
    We catch the bus every morning.
    It rains every afternoon in the hot season.
    They drive to Monaco every summer.
  • For general truths
    The Earth revolves around the Sun.
  • For instructions or directions
    Open
    the packet and pour the contents into hot water.
    You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.
  • For  fixed arrangements
    His mother arrives tomorrow.
    Our holiday starts on the 26th March

Adverb of Time

q     Always

q     Never

q     Every

q     Often

q     Seldom

q     Usually

q     Sometimes

A. VERBAL SENTENCE

Affirmative Form

S +V1(-s/-es) +Object

Subject Verb 1 Object
I buy some books
You write a story
We study English
They play football
He goes to school
She gives a present
It runs very fast

NEGATIVE FORM
S+ do/does+ not+ V1+ object

Subject Do/does Not Verb 1 Object
I do not buy some books
You do not write a story
We do not study English
They Do not play football
He does not goes to school
She does not gives a present
it does not runs very fast

INTERROGATIVE FORM
Do/does+ S+ V1+ Object?

Do/does Subject Verb 1 Object
Do I buy some books?
Do you write a story?
Do we study English?
Do they play football?
Does he go to school?
Does she give a present?
Does it run very fast?

1.   Verbs ending in –y: the third person changes the –y to –ies :

fly → flies, cry → cries

Exception: if there is a vowel before the –y :

play → plays, pray → prays

  1. Add –es to verbs ending in: -ss, -x, -sh, -ch :

he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes

B. NON VERBAL SENTENCE

AFFIRMATIVE FORM
S+ to be(am/is/are)+ noun/adjective/adverb
NEGATIVE FORM
S+ to be+ not+ noun/adjective/adverb
INTERROGATIVE FORM
To be+ S+ noun/adjective/adverb

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I am a student Am I a student? I am not a student
You are clever Are you clever? You are not clever
We are teachers Are we teachers? We are not teachers
They are in library Are they in library? They are not in library
He is diligent Is he diligent? He is not diligent
She is a beautiful girl Is she a beautiful girl? She is not a beautiful girl
It is a cat Is it a cat? It is not a cat

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

Examples:

  • I play tennis.
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

Past Tense Sabtu, Feb 27 2010 

Standard Competency :

*     To comprehend and express the meanings of short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of past tense in the daily life context to access knowledge

Basic Competency :

*     To respond and express the meaning nuance and the rhetorical steps within the short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of  past tense (simple past tense, past continuous tense, past perfect tense)accurately and fluently in the daily life context to access knowledge

Indicators :

After having finished the lesson, the student are expected to be able to:

*     understand the pattern of past tense

*     identify past tense in a certain text

*     use past tense in making sentences and telling an event or action.

*     Simple past is formed for regular verb by adding –ed to the root of a word. Example: He walked to the store. A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infinitive form. Example: He did not walk to the store. Question sentences are started with did as in Did he walk to the store?

For other uses, see past tense (disambiguation).

The past tense (abbreviated pst) is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state of being in the past of the current moment (in an absolute tense system), or prior to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future (in a relative tense system).

In English, there are two distinct types of past tense:

  1. Preterite (or simple past)
  2. Present perfect (see perfect aspect)

Each of these may also be found in the progressive (cuntinuous) aspect.

Simple past is used for describing acts that have already been concluded and whose exact time of occurrence is known. Furthermore, simple past is used for retelling successive events. That is why it is commonly used in storytelling

  • Simple Past Tense is a kind of tense which is used to describe an event or action that happened already in a certain time in  the past

The pattern   :

–         (+) Subject + verb II + complement

–         (-)  Subject + did not + verb II +       complement

–         (?)  Did + subject + verb I

The examples :

–         (+)  I went to Tangkiling yesterday

–         (-)  I did not go anywhere last night

–         (?) Did you go last week?

Adverbs used : yesterday, last night, last week, two days ago, a few  minutes ago, last weekend, last month, last year, in 1984, etc.

  • Past Continuous Tense is a kind of tense that is used to describe an event or an action which was happening in a certain time in the past

–         The pattern :  (

–         +) Subject + was/were +verb-ing+ complement

–         (-)  Subject + was not/were not+verb-ing+ complement

–         (?)  was/were+ subject + verb-ing+complement

The examples :

(+) He was writing a letter at eight  o’clock last night

(-) He was not writing a letter at seven o’clock last night

(?)  Were you writing a letter at eight last night?

Adverbs used : at the time like this yesterday, at seven o’clock  last   night, etc.

Past Perfect Tense is a kind of tense that is used to describe an action or an event that started in a certain time in the past and completed or finished  till  certain time in the past too; or past perfect tense is used to express an action or an event that had happened before the other event or action happened

The pattern :

–         (+) Subject + had+verb III+cmplement

–         (-) Subject + had not+ver III+complement

–         (?) Had + subject +verb III+complement

examples

–         (+) We had eaten before they came

–         (-) They had not eaten before we came

–         (?) Had they eaten before we came?

Adverbs used :

from 1998 to 1999, once, twice, etc.

Simple past is formed for regular verbs by adding -d or–ed to the root of a word. Examples: He walked to the store, or They danced all night.. A negation is produced by adding did not and the verb in its infinitive form. Example: He did not walk to the store. Question sentences are started with did as in Did he walk to the store?

Simple past is used for describing acts that have already been concluded and whose exact time of occurrence is known. Furthermore, simple past is used for retelling successive events. That is why it is commonly used in storytelling.

Past progressive is formed by using the adequate form of to be and the verb’s present participle: He was going to church. By inserting not before the main verb a negation is achieved. Example: He was not going to church. A question is formed by prefixing the adequate form of to be as in Was he going?.

Past progressive is used for describing events that were in the process of occurring when a new event happened. The already occurring event is presented in past progressive, the new one in simple past. Example: We were sitting in the garden when the thunderstorm started. Use is similar to other languages’ imperfect tense.

Present perfect simple is formed by combining have/has with the main verb’s past participle form: I have arrived. A negation is produced by inserting not after have/has: I have not arrived. Questions in present perfect are formulated by starting a sentence with have/has: Has she arrived?

Present perfect simple is used for describing a past action’s effect on the present: He has arrived. Now he is here. This holds true for events that have just been concluded as well as for events that have not yet occurred.

Present perfect progressive is formed by prefixing have/has before the grammatical participle been and the verb’s present participial form: We have been waiting. A negation is expressed by including not between have/has and been: They have not been eating. As with present perfect simple, for forming a question, have/has is put at the beginning of a sentence: Have they been eating?

Present perfect progressive is used for describing an event that has been going on until the present and may be continued in the future. It also puts emphasis on how an event has occurred. Very often since and for mark the use of present perfect progressive: I have been waiting for five hours / I have been waiting since three o’clock.

Furthermore, there is another version of past tense possible: past perfect, similar to other languages’ pluperfect tense.

Past perfect simple is formed by combining the simple past form of to have with the past participle form of the main verb: We had shouted. A negation is achieved by including not after had: You had not spoken. Questions in past perfect always start with had: Had he laughed?

Past perfect simple is used for describing secluded events that have occurred before something else followed. The event that is closer to the present is given in simple past tense: After we had visited our relatives in New York, we flew back to Toronto.

Past perfect progressive is formed by had, the grammatical particle been and the present participle of the main verb: You had been waiting. For negation, not is included before been: I had not been waiting. A question sentence is formed by starting with had: Had she been waiting?

If emphasis is put on the duration of a concluded action of the past, since and for are signal words for past perfect progressive: We had been waiting at the airport since the 9 P.M. flight. / They had been waiting for three hours now.

Procedure Text Sabtu, Feb 27 2010 

Standard Competency :

*     To comprehend and express the meaning of short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of simple procedure text accurately and fluently in the daily life context to access knowledge

Basic Competency :

*     To respond and express the meaning nuance and the rhetorical steps within the short functional  and simple monolog essay texts in the form of recount, narrative and procedure text in the daily life context to access knowledge

Indicators :

After having finished the lesson, the student will be expected to able to:

*     understand the concept of procedure text

*     mention the generic structures of procedure text

*     tell and write the procedures of making or doing something

example: some activities related to procedure.

(Cooking)


(Used handphone)

(activity of doctor)

A procedure is a specified series of actions or operations which have to be executed in the same manner in order to always obtain the same result under the same circumstances (for example, emergency procedures). Less precisely speaking, this word can indicate a sequence of tasks, steps, decisions, calculations and processes, that when undertaken in the sequence laid down produces the described result, product or outcome. A procedure usually induces a change. It is in the scientific method.

Purpose:

To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.
Text Organization:

  • Goal:(The final purpose of doing the instructions)
  • Materials:(ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
  • Steps:(a set of instructions to achieve the final purpose)

Language Features :

  • Use of imperatives (e.g.: cut, don’t mix)
  • Use of action Verbs (e.g. : turn, put, mix)
  • Use of connectives (e.g. : first, then, finally, …)
  • Use of adverbial phrases (e.g. : for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top)

The Definition Of Procedure Text

*     Procedure text  is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. This text uses simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also uses the temporal conjunction such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc.

The generic structures of procedure text are  :

*     Goal/aim ( or title)

*     Materials (not required for all procedural texts)

*     Steps (the actions that must be taken)

How to make a sandwich (aim/goal)

You need (materials)

*     2 slices of bread

*     peanut butter

*     a banana

*     honey

What you should do are : (steps)

*     Take two slices of bread

*     Spread peanut butter

*     Cut up a banana onto small slices and put them on one of the slices

*     Pour some honey over the bananas

*     Put the other slice of bread on top


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